According to Gerard Baynham of Water Street Partners, there has been a lot of negative press about joint ventures, but objective data indicate that they can actually exceed 100% in controlled possession and subsidiaries. He writes: "Another account was taken from our recent analysis of U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) data collected by more than 20,000 companies. According to DOC data, foreign joint ventures of U.S. companies achieved an average return of 5.5 percent on assets (ROA), while controlled and controlled subsidiaries of these companies (the vast majority of which are wholly owned) achieved a slightly lower roe of 5.2 percent. The same story applies to foreign business investment in the United States, but the difference is more pronounced. U.S.-based joint ventures achieved an average ROA of 2.2%, while 100% controlled and controlled subsidiaries in the United States accounted for only 0.7% of ROA. Joint venture companies are the preferred form of business investment, but there are no separate laws for joint ventures. Companies registered in India are treated in the same way as domestic companies.
Joint ventures with commercial enterprises are permitted with the importation of used facilities and machinery. The company can be a group of companies (for example. B Dow Corning), a project/JV designed to pursue a specific project or joint venture that aims to set standards or serve as an "industrial utility" providing a limited number of services to industry players. A joint venture may take time or exist only until a short-term goal is achieved. In the United Kingdom, India and many common law countries, a joint venture (or a company incorporated by a group of individuals) must submit the Memorandum of Understanding to the appropriate authority. It is a legal document that informs the public of its existence. It can be consulted by the public at the place where it is deposited. A sample can be seen on wikimedia.org.  With the statutes, it constitutes the "constitution" of a company in these countries. Chinese joint ventures are a mechanism for forced transfer of technology. In many cases, technology transfer through China`s Foreign Direct Investment (D) regime, which covers important economic sectors for foreign companies, is indeed necessary.
To access these sectors, China requires foreign companies to create joint ventures with non-linked Chinese companies.